Mary Dickerson and her husband Silas arrived in Newport from New Haven, Ct. around 1865. By 1872 she established a “Fashionable Dressmaking Establishment” at 5 Travers Block along Newport’s Bellevue Avenue servicing the needs of Newport’s summer residents. Dickerson and her husband also owned numerous rental properties in Newport, providing housing and business space for Newport’s large African American community.
In 1895 Dickerson was a founding member of the National Association of Colored Women’s Clubs. Dickerson would also organized the New England Federation of Colored Women's Clubs that was later changed to the Northeast Federation of Women's Clubs. Mrs. Dickerson went on to become the first President of the Rhode Island Association of Colored Women's Clubs. In 1895 she also organized the Women’s Newport League still active today as one of the oldest women of color civic clubs. During her life, Dickerson was considered one of the most influential woman of color in the nation leading issues that promoted the social uplift of women, children and families.
This is part of an ongoing series by Keith W. Stokes, Lead Researcher for the NPS Grant - Civil Rights in 20th Century Rhode Island.
Born in 1867 in Providence to Henry and Amelia Jackson, Mary Elizabeth Jackson was a member of Pond Street Baptist Church and charter member of the Providence NAACP. One of the best known woman of color of her day, Jackson worked tirelessly to halt discriminatory practices and improve working conditions for women of color. A statistician at Rhode Island Labor Department, during WWI she was appointed as a Special Worker for Colored Girls on the YWCA War Work Council, analyzing employment trends and recommending programs to encourage fair employment of women of color across the country.
As an early advocate of the rights of working women, she wrote an article in NAACP’s Crisis Magazine in November 1918 entitled, “The Colored Woman in Industry” detailing the working conditions of many of the women in factories, the many industries that they were working in, and the hopeful future of colored women in industry. This forward thinking woman not only discusses the prejudice and poor working conditions these women faced, but also the inequality of wages between blacks and whites, and between men and women. Jackson was also a member of Rhode Island Colored Women’s Club, Anti-Lynching Crusaders, League of Women Voters, and Women’s Beneficial Association.
Reverend Van Horne was Pastor at Newport’s Union Colored Congregational Church between 1868 & 1898. The historic church was established in 1824 as a religious extension of the 18th century Free African Benevolent Society. Van Horne became a part of a new generation of post-Civil War, African heritage leaders who would lead Black churches into major leadership roles within the Civil Rights Movement. A legacy that would influence 20th century leaders including Rev Martin Luther King, Jr.
Later, Van Horne would become the first African heritage member elected to the Newport School Board in 1871 and the first to serve in the Rhode Island General Assembly in 1885. That year he help to lead the passage of the state’s first Civil Rights bill that stated, “No person within the State shall be debarred from the full and equal enjoyment of the accommodations, advantages, facilities and privileges of any licensed inn, public conveyance, on land or water or from any licensed places of public amusement on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.” In 1898 he was appointed General Counsel to Danish West Indies by President McKinley during Spanish American War.
Arriving in Newport by the mid 1840’s, George T. Downing would become one of 19th century Newport’s most successful hospitality entrepreneurs.
A nationally recognized Abolitionist, Downing also lobbied tirelessly to officially desegregate Rhode Island public schools, beginning in 1857, by which time he was well-established in Newport as the proprietor of the Sea Girt House luxury hotel with confectionary and catering businesses on the Downing Block along historic Bellevue Avenue.
Downing would later lead the repeal of the state’s ban on interracial marriage, and racial discrimination in the reorganization of the Rhode Island militia. Downing helped purchased Touro Park and founded the American Colored Union Labor League.
Civil and equal rights Renaissance man, Alfred Niger of Providence would represent Rhode Island in the first “American Society of Free Persons of Colour Convention” in Philadelphia in 1830. The Convention assembled free and emancipated African heritage Americans to promote educational, labor, and legal justice during the years before the Civil War and when Black rights were constricted nationally and locally. Niger was a leader before and after the Rhode Island Dorr Rebellion to champion the reinstatement of Black voting rights in 1842. He was also a Rhode Island delegate to the American Anti-slavery Society and officer of the Hiram Lodge No.3 which was chartered in Providence in 1797, the second African heritage Lodge of Freemasonry in America. A Barber by trade, Niger and his family lived in Providence’s sixth ward for most of his life.
(Image courtesy of the Rhode Island Historical Society)
Free African, Anthony Taylor became a founding member of the first African heritage benevolent organization in America, the Free African Union Society in Newport in 1780. Taylor as Society President in 1789 would lead the effort to reach out to other free Africans across America to establish a network of African civic, religious and educational organizations. African communities he corresponded with included Boston, Philadelphia, New York and Providence. In his July 27, 1789 letter to “To All the Africans in Providence,” He called for a unification of free Africans along with a return to Africa because, “…We the members of the Union Society in Newport, taking into consideration the calamitous state into which we are brought by the righteous hand of GOD, being strangers and outcasts in a strange land…” He would organize early efforts to return to Africa, but never realized the dream of returning home, dying in Newport in 1799. He is buried in Newport’s “God’s Little Acre” burying ground, the oldest existing enslaved and free African heritage burying ground in America.
This is part of an ongoing series by Keith W. Stokes, Lead Researcher for the NPS Grant - Civil Rights in 20th Century Rhode Island.
Reverend Samuel Hopkins of Newport’s 1st Congregational Church is recognized as one of America’s earliest Abolitionist. In 1776 he publishes, “A Dialogue Concerning the Slavery of the Africans: Showing it to be the Duty and Interest of the American States to Emancipate All Their African Slaves” that year and dedicates the book to members of the Continental Congress. He later raises funds to send the first two Africans to college and helps to found the Free African Union Society at Newport in 1780.
In a recent post on the 1696 Heritage Group Blog - Keith Stokes reminds us of the British Abolition of Slavery that occurred on August 1st, 1834 - and how one successful act of reparations remained ignored - then and now.
On this day August 1, 1834 the United Kingdom abolished slavery throughout the British Empire, nearly 30 years before the American Emancipation Proclamation. While British plantation owners received substantial financial compensation for the loss of their slave property, former enslaved African heritage people received nothing. Freedom without reparations. Regrettably, newly freed Africans across the Americas replaced the old chains of slavery with the new restraints of discrimination and segregation. This socio-economic burden would follow far too many persons of African descent even to this very day.
Possibly the most important effort towards slavery reparations , unmatched then and hardly recognized today, took place in 1795 when a group of twenty-eight recently emancipated Africans from Jamaica arrived in Philadelphia under a creative and organized plan to provide a form of reparations - for the personal suffering placed upon enslaved Africans by the owner class of Europe and the Americas.
Quaker David Barclay of Great Britain, recognized today as the founder of Barclay’s Bank, acquired through a settlement of a debt a plantation in Jamaica called Unity Valley Pen.
As a stanch Quaker and Abolitionist, Barclay was driven to not only free the slaves he inherited in faraway Jamaica, he underwrote an international reparations plan connecting Great Britain and Jamaica with Philadelphia, which that at the time had the largest free Black community in the Americas. Barclay had long family ties with Philadelphia and its Quaker community becoming an early member of the Pennsylvania Abolition Society under friend Benjamin Franklin’s leadership.
At the direction of Barclay his agents in Jamaica transported the emancipates to Philadelphia arriving on July 22, 1795. The newly freed were placed in the care of the Quaker Abolition Society who had adopted a formal reparations plan entitled, “A Plan for Improving the Condition of the Free Blacks.” The group was initially clothed and cared for through Rev. Richard Allen and the Mother Bethel AME Church and Rev. Absalom Jones of the St. Thomas African Episcopal Church. St. Thomas is the first African Episcopal Church in America founded in 1792. Mother Bethel is the first African American AME Church in America founded in 1794. Each of them were set up with access to education and in a trade skill, many as indentured servants with members of the Quaker community.
One of the youngest members of the newly arrived Jamaicans was a boy of eight named October, my great, great grandfather. Upon his arrival to Philadelphia he was renamed Robert Barclay and indentured for thirteen years as a “Windsor Chair Maker.” Robert Barclay would become a successful businessman and active member in black masonic and civic organizations including the Underground Rail Road that was active in the years leading up to the Civil War.
Today, I am blessed to have many heirlooms from the Barclay family household of Philadelphia including an original 1872 printing of the “Underground Railroad” by William Still. I also have been able to follow subsequent generations of Barclay family members into the 19th and early 20th century America as they continued their journey of freedom and prosperity. A journey made possible through an organized effort to provide my ancestor the access to education, training and opportunity that was denied so many other African heritage people.
So what is the value of emancipation and freedom without some method of reparations so that the oppressed have equal access to the means to become self-sufficient? As we celebrate the history of emancipation across the Americas we should also be mindful that emancipation without repairing the hundreds of years and many generations of African heritage people who suffered greatly under that peculiar system is at best, an unfinished effort or at worst, freedom without meaning. Maybe famed African American abolitionist, Fredrick Douglas knew this when he stated in 1876:
“You say you have emancipated us…But when you turned us loose, you gave us no acres. You turned us loose to the sky, to the storm, to the whirlwind, and worst of all, you turned us loose to the wrath of our infuriated masters.”
“Truth telling helps all of us to become more equal.”
—Prof. Richard Lobban
The RI Black Heritage Society fall/winter Living History lecture series provides critical opportunities to engage our diverse communities in conversations that allow us to elevate our awareness and engage each other in making an active difference. You're invited to explore American identity and Rhode Island history through a series of FREE lectures on the complex contributions, journeys, plights and experiences of African Heritage peoples. African Heritage peoples have a rich and intricate history that mirrors the strength, resilience, and forward leaning optimism that is the American core. Remember that WE are ONE: join us on this journey and open your mind to explore more complex perspectives.
On Wednesday, October 19th, Professor Richard Lobban kicked off the beginning of this year’s Living History lecture series with his talk “History Context of the Watchman Institute: Tuskegee of the North,” as a speaker with the Rhode Island Black Heritage Society at the Aldrich House of the Rhode Island Historical Society. This history included the urban needs of Rhode Island’s Black population as well as the arson attacks by the Ku Klux Klan active in this time in the 20th century. Professor Lobban also discussed the distinctive architecture in Providence as it related to the Watchman institute itself and how construction aesthetic epitomized the wide reaching influence of the slave trade.
The far reaching hand of slavery extends well beyond stories of the antebellum South…
Professor Lobban connected the architectural history of downtown Providence, characterized by the Greek revival styled buildings of renowned architect Russell Warren (who had close ties to the infamous slave trading DeWolfe family of Bristol), to construction sponsorships by slave trade monies and Rhode Island’s architectural appeal to wealthy slave owners.
*Even the architecture of the Arcade, also former home of the RI Black Heritage Society, demonstrates the work of Russell Warren and serves as a concrete reminder of the influence of monies from the slave trade*
As Professor Lobban noted, truly, “slavery [is] integrated into the total economy” of both our nation and the state of Rhode Island. His talk further highlighted how a structure built with funds from the slave trade and slave labor would become repurposed as an institutional beacon of hope and progress for black communities in RI. Originally constructed as the Lapham Institute/ Smithville Seminary in Scituate, RI, this same building would later transform into the home of the Watchman Institute and be repurposed as a trade school inspired by the ideology of Booker T. Washington and the practices at the Tuskegee Institute. Coined by Professor Lobban as the “Tuskegee of the North,” the Watchman Institute, founded by Reverend Willian S. Holland in 1908 as the “Watchman Industrial School”, operated on Booker T. Washington’s philosophy that blacks could excel and integrate into society upon learning a practical trade and skills to better themselves. Founded in Providence and later relocated to Scituate, the Watchman Institute, while a positive force in the progress of the black community, was met with strong opposition by groups characterized by racism.
The struggle for civil rights persists:
Progress faces challenges of overt and covert racism
Events that some commonly perceive as isolated tragedies of the antebellum south are not far removed at all from nationwide experiences characterized by fear and the domestic terrorism of radicalized hatred through the efforts of the Klu Klux Klan. Klan members attributed blame for economic difficulty and depression in Rhode Island to the prosperity of the black community as made possible by the Watchman institute. Considering that members of the KKK represented people in places of power and prestige, attacks by this domestic terrorist group went widely unchecked and unchallenged in many instances. 1924, 1926, and 1934 mark recorded arson attacks on the Watchman Institute as perpetrated by the KKK. One newspaper report records the telling response of strength, sadness, and resolve expressed by Rev. Holland in response to the fires: “Dr. Holland makes no charges; he has formed the habit of smiling.” The response of the black community to the burnings of the Watchman institute demonstrated the resolve and dedication to progress characteristic of the hope of the civil rights movement and the work of those advocating for equality and prosperity in racial equity.
Understanding our history provides a platform to highlight our shared humanity.
Richard Lobban made a strong observation at the closing of his Living History presentation:
“RI History: a history of triumphs, great architects, human creativity, and challenges to overcome, and of human failures. A history of trying to make things better… and a history of slavery, denials and xenophobic fears.”
Not only is our state history highly relevant to national conversations and nationwide struggles, it also reminds us that the darkness in American history does not exist in isolation. Prejudicial fears and injustice related to racial inequality persisted all across the United States and the legacy of slavery permeated communities all over Rhode Island. But the strength and dignity of dedicated leaders in our communities have encouraged efforts striving towards the right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness for all. As Dr. Martin Luther King courageously noted, “the arc of the moral universe if long, but it bends towards justice.”
What are YOU doing today that will make our world better tomorrow? How are you making history? Our history and our heritage hold the key for understanding how to move forward through our present by using the lessons and the strength of the past. You CAN make a difference…. Join the conversation with us today.
Jordan Fowler is the Executive Assistant for 1696 Heritage Group and assists in client organizational management, social media, and programming. A graduate of the University of Virginia, Jordan served as co-producer and director of a national exhibition highlighting various multi-ethnic historical and cultural narratives across the Atlantic, funded by grants from the University of Virginia, the Institute for Shipboard Education, and the Cultural Alliance of York County.
While President Roosevelt designated the second Monday in October as the national federal holiday, October 12th marks the recognized anniversary date of Columbus’ arrival in the Caribbean. Many Americans will associate Columbus Day with the discovery and unveiling of the New World—supposedly marking the inception of the Americas while bringing honor and glory to the pioneering explorers of Western Europe. Popular culture celebrates the legacy of Columbus from a lens that magnifies the spirit of discovery, establishing a mythological heroism disproportionate to true historical accounts of the man. Publicly held views of Columbus and Columbus Day celebrations fail to acknowledge the accuracy in more morbid accounts of his ventures. From popular perspective, Columbus’s work sought to enlighten and expand the world view of his time, however, knowledge of the New World predated Columbus’s accounts by centuries. The optimism and forward leaning hope characteristic of American culture seeks to highlight the best of humanity, but even so, we would be remiss to ignore the historical facts revealing the darkness in histories that have not been sufficiently exposed.
Academic scholars can attest to true accounts of Columbus in their totality. As a nautical expert and master navigator of his time, Columbus possessed great talents; but it is integral to demystify the man who committed horrible crimes against humanity for the sake of fame and glory. The carefully crafted well-intentions projected by some academic spheres fail to address the reality of the times and does a great injustice to the realities of the indigenous people. Let’s not allow ourselves to be disillusioned by the socially constructed mythical historical figure of Columbus; historians have a responsibility to present all facts and preserve all histories.
Let’s tell the Truth…the WHOLE truth
Grade school history books and lesson plans paint the hyper-romanticized vision of Columbus as a national hero, charting unknown waters and destined for new lands in the name of patriotism and adventure. History books do not teach of the pre-Columbus ‘discoveries’ and exploration of the New World nor do they address how Columbus’ ideology and strategy laid the groundwork for the foundation of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. The trans-oceanic discoveries of explorers long before the time of Columbus are neither openly acknowledged nor widely celebrated during Columbus Day in America. The glory and fame associated with Columbus, further perpetuated though the subliminal association of colonization with the establishment of ‘civilized’ society, dangerously assumes the superiority of Western theory and documentation over the very real historic accomplishments, discoveries and realizations of other preceding cultures.
The widely held belief surrounding the famed name of Christopher Columbus suggests that as a legendary explorer, his expeditions paved the way for European colonization of the Americas. However, Columbus did not actually discover the Americas: not only did Columbus never set foot on the mainland continent of the Americas, his observations and records served only as revelations for the Western worlds of the Spanish realm on the Iberian Peninsula. Seldom are people taught about the explorers and other peoples of the world whose previous travels informed and inspired Columbus himself! Cultures hundreds of years before Columbus, including Polynesian explorers, Irish priests and even other western European peoples (just to name a few) had made earlier contact with the Americas, expanding beliefs of worlds outside of their own.
We credit one man with an accomplishment achieved by many others before him solely because he belongs to a culture that traditionally dominated the construction and dissemination of historic narratives. Viewing history solely through an ethnocentric lens that highlights a skewed Eurocentric perspective of greatness, intelligence, progress and civility deprives us of the richness of other cultures that existed simultaneously and were equally integral to the formation of our modern world. Competing timelines around the globe reveal the discoveries and accomplishments of cultures that existed in isolation of each other. Through intercommunication, discovery and colonization, the natural progression of historic world events would expand and blend knowledge of diverse ways of life while challenging perceptions of self and other. We do ourselves no justice and instead debase and decry the validity of underrepresented historical facts when we choose not to honor the Truth in its totality. Even Columbus himself was inspired to dream based on the earlier findings of other scholars whose accounts make note of a new world beyond their own.
True, Columbus was a renowned navigator of his time,
but history reveals much more than that…
Columbus’s navigated his way to Hispañola in the Caribbean, what is today known as Haiti and the Dominican Republic. As a natural inquirer and explorer, Columbus’s diary entries show a deep appreciation for nature and truly his knowledge depth of botany and love of geography are impressive. If only his appreciation of and admiration for nature could be translated to equal compassion and respect towards the native peoples of the islands upon which he landed… In the same breath that he describes the physical flora and fauna of the New World with such grace and admiration, Columbus proudly notes his conquest of and control over the native peoples. As he took captives from one island of San Salvador (present Bahamas), Columbus noted:
*“My desire was not to pass any island without taking possession, so that, one having been taken, the same may be said of all. I anchored, and remained until to-day, Tuesday, when I went to the shore with the boats armed, and landed.”
In order to justify his crusades to the Spanish King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, Columbus had to prove that their investment in his ventures would yield profit for the King and Queen. Thus, Columbus was charged with securing riches for the crown as well as spreading their religious beliefs. Believing that the native peoples possessed gold and could be further utilized as a work force, Columbus noted that *“they can all be subjugated and made to do what is required of them.” Considering that the Catholic church did not allow for the enslavement of Christians, Columbus and his men did not baptize the natives or convert them to their religion—it was regarded as more advantageous to enslave the natives and force them to mine for gold. The notion that foreign people could be colonized and forced to labor in captivity is not uncommon to the time considering the possession of slaves as spoils of war during La Reconquista, the war between the Moors and Spaniards on the Iberian Peninsula. However, Columbus had no respect for the Natives and employed the most brutal and dehumanizing tactics in asserting his control over the people and resources of the New World.
“I have given order for a tower and a fort, both well-built… not because I believe that such defenses will be necessary. I believe that with the force I have with me I could subjugate the whole island, which I believe to be larger than Portugal, and the population double. But they are naked and without arms and hopelessly timid… The people may thus know the skill of the subjects of your highnesses, and what they can do; and will obey them with love and fear.”
Through the process of trial and error, Columbus and those under his command worked to establish a slave trade that would benefit their efforts in the colonized lands as well as Spain: Natives were shipped from their homeland to Spain and sold as slaves in addition to being forced into servitude in their own land. While the treatment of natives varied depending on the time and colonizing power, Columbus’s own accounts show little to no respect for the native peoples of the land on which he arrived. True, there were no such concepts as human rights or woman’s rights during the time of Columbus… but the inhumane acts committed and permitted through and in the colonization efforts were far from noble. This process of exploiting captured peoples and trading slaves for financial gain evolved as a process, setting the tone for the foundation of the African enslavement. When efforts to enslave native people failed, colonists would later transport African slaves to the Caribbean, marking the beginning of the slave trade system that would soon define the Americas. The ancestral blood and stories of these African survivors live on in the people that we know today to reside in the Caribbean.
In all our scholarly studies, we strive to uncover and honor the truth. The painful and tragic atrocities committed in the name of discovery by Columbus are neither widely taught nor openly acknowledged in common American history. To separate out the happenings of the brutal acts of colonization and solely celebrate Columbus’s vision would be a travesty. It is not commendable to justify and legitimize the treatment of native peoples and the atrocities committed in the name of science and discovery through the celebration of Columbus.
Just as we advocate for transparency and equal acknowledgement of ALL histories in the diversity of our nation, to disregard the foundation of the slave trade while ignoring the plight of Native peoples under Columbus does our own efforts a huge disservice. However, while Columbus was neither saint or hero, the actions and crimes of the men under his command cannot be attributed wholly unto him. But the brutality and inhumanity scribed in Columbus’s own hand chronicle his experience in telling ways that contradict the flowery portrayal of him as a legendary hero. We discredit ourselves and our own efforts in racial equity in scholarship and the education system if we over simplify and fail to accurately recount history and instead pick and choose which aspects of Columbus’s accounts we embrace.
Out of the darkness comes light…
Many Americans regard the legacy of Columbus with reverence as one of transformational discovery and heroic proportions. But how do the descendants of Native peoples feel about the horrors suffered by their ancestors in the name of “discovery”? Were these chronicles of exploration motivated by untainted quest for knowledge or out of unbridled greed and thirst for glory? The story of colonization of the New World fails to address the changing human dynamics: current teachings and interpretations of Columbus’s legacy often subtly dismiss the suffering of the native peoples and seldom address the mixing of Native and African bloodlines during the slave trade. Consider how the second Monday in October is regarded as a day of discovery and achievement for some, while remembrance of the darker legacy of Columbus holds much pain for others. To celebrate (in present day) the trans-oceanic colonization of the Americas, through praising and magnifying Columbus while accepting the suffering of the native peoples as unavoidable or regrettable necessary evil, distorts interpretations of Columbus’ legacy and intentions. We do not have to condone the lack of humanity that characterizes the colonization of the New World through championing the story of Columbus.
An objective goal within the act of historic preservation is to expose and preserve historic accounts while offering factual insight into interpretations of the past. By definition of its name, history is a story that a culture tells itself of and about itself—it is how we remember who we are. Due to the diversity of the world and the plurality of contrasting world views and timelines, all world histories have different accounts. But there is more than one side to every story and storytelling, at its best, should hold Truth at its core. In all historic accounts, it would be a true travesty to ignore the aspects of our past that carry pain, shame and darkness in order to maintain an image of glory benefitting some at the expense of others.
How do we use this space of difficulty and conflict to enlighten our awareness of the Truth? The discrepancies in widely held public accounts of the happenings and effects of Columbus’ travels reveal the dichotomy between fact and fiction. In all professions and even in all academic spaces, knowledge is evolutionary in that our understanding is constantly evolving and expanding. Incomplete knowledge perpetuates false narratives that often err on the side of over simplification.
"The optimism and forward leaning hope characteristic of American culture seeks to highlight the best of humanity, but even so, we would be remiss to ignore the historical facts revealing the darkness in histories that have not been sufficiently exposed..."
While the human condition is characterized by imperfection, this does not prevent us from reconciling with our past histories to learn from them. More importantly, we must choose our heroes with great caution: the myths surrounding popularly held beliefs about Columbus’ intentions or dreams do not hold true to the reality of the man. We must criticize the discourse of any position that unilaterally highlights one aspect of history over another without honoring the Truth in all narratives, however conflicting. The truest account of any happening in history is not a monolithic account, but rather multidimensional in its complexity, made more complex by often conflicting personal accounts from different compounding vantage points. Due to the misuse of history, we must work to uncover the truth from different perspectives and historical accounts that are equally as important as those perpetuated on a national stage. Although the darker aspects of Columbus and his legacy are neither glamorous nor as uplifting as celebrated in the public sphere, it enlightens our understanding of Columbus as a historic figure and honors other accounts in their entirety.
The world becomes a whole new place
when you open up to other people’s Truths instead of taking your own for gospel…
Considering that discovery, pride, and patriotism reside at the heart of the desire to commemorate Columbus Day, let’s persist in the quest for knowledge: expand your horizons beyond what you think you know and embrace the fullness of the Truth. Choose to educate yourself… you might just learn something! The world becomes a whole new place, the more you learn.
Sources and Suggestions for Further Reading:
* Excerpts from Columbus personal accounts: http://eada.lib.umd.edu/text-entries/journal/ This text of the present edition was prepared from and proofed against Christopher Columbus, "Journal of the First Voyage of Columbus," in Julius E. Olson and Edward Gaylord Bourne, eds., The Northmen, Columbus and Cabot, 985-1503, Original Narratives of Early American History (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1906).
Lies my Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong, James Loewen
Christopher Columbus, "Journal of the First Voyage of Columbus," in Julius E. Olson and Edward Gaylord Bourne, eds., . New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1906.
“Columbus’ Confusion About the New World”, Edmund S Morgan
“Why Christopher Columbus Was The Perfect Icon For a New Nation Looking for a Hero”, Brian Handwerk
A People’s History of the United States, Howard Zinn
Literary works and translations of Bartolome de las Casas
The Other Slavery, Andres Resendez
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Rhode Island Black Heritage Society is a 501(c)3 non-profit organization. 110 Benevolent Street, Providence RI 02906